Berkouwer maintained that, when Romans 9-11 is understood as referring to “God’s revelation of mercy … and not to a ‘naked sovereignty'”, the illegitimacy of man’s protest against God and the “mystical delight” of Paul’s doxology are seen quite differenty from their deterministic interpretation (A Half Century of Theology, pp. 90, 93; Divine Election, pp. 65, 147-149). Man’s protest is recognized as entirely inappropriate because “the doctrine of election is an ‘inexpressible comfort’ for both the believer and the nonbeliever since it proclaims that there is hope for the ‘most miserable of men'” (A Half Century of Theology, p. 103). Paul’s doxology is recognized as entirely appropriate because it is faith’s response to the divine mercy in which “there is nothing of ‘the inexplicable arbitrariness of power that moves one to put his fingers to his lips” (A Half Century of Theology, p. 93).